Common Name(s): Apple, Crab Apple, Wild Apple

Scientific Name: Malus spp. (Malus domestica, Malus sieversii, Malus sylvestris, etc.)

Distribution: Found throughout most temperate climates

Tree Size: 13-30 ft (4-9 m) tall, 1 ft (.3 m) trunk diameter

Average Dried Weight: 52 lbs/ft3 (830 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .61, .83

Janka Hardness: 1,730 lbf (7,700 N)

Modulus of Rupture: 12,800 lbf/in2 (88.3 MPa)

Elastic Modulus: 1,270,000 lbf/in2 (8.76 GPa)

Crushing Strength: 6,030 lbf/in2 (41.6 MPa)

Shrinkage: Radial: 5.6%, Tangential: 10.1%, Volumetric: 17.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.8

Color/Appearance: Heartwood can vary from a light reddish or grayish brown to a deeper red/brown. The grain of Apple is sometimes seen with streaks of darker and lighter bands of color, similar to Olive. Sapwood is a pale cream color.

Grain/Texture: Grain is straight (though on some sections of the tree it can also be wild). With a very fine, uniform texture, closely resembling Cherry.

Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; small to very-small pores tending to occur in increased frequency in earlywood zone; exclusively solitary; growth rings distinct; rays usually not visible without lens; parenchyma not typically visible with lens.

Rot Resistance: Apple is rated as non-durable for heartwood decay.

Workability: Apple can be somewhat difficult to work due to its high density, and can burn easily when being machined. Apple glues, stains, finishes, and turns well.

Odor: Apple has a faint, sweet scent while being worked.

Allergies/Toxicity: Besides the standard health risks associated with any type of wood dust, no further health reactions have been associated with Apple. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.

Pricing/Availability: Apple is seldom available in lumber form, and is usually seen only in very small sizes when available. Likely to be rather expensive, and is usually meant for only small projects and specialized applications.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Common Uses: Fine furniture, tool handles, carving, mallet heads, turned items, and other small specialty wood objects.

Comments: Apple has a high shrinkage rate, and experiences a large amount of seasonal movement in service. Its appearance and texture closely resemble Cherry, another fruit tree. Yet Apple is significantly heavier and harder than Cherry, and is excellent for turning.

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